Iconography, iconology. See the works of Panofsky.
Iconometry. The measurement techniques on images. Used by Roxame, for instance, as a search for quantitative aesthetic criteria.
< DAI: Digitally augmented identity. by Pierre Berger Communication at Laval Virtual, 2010.On line.
< Human Identity in Times of Computers. Subjects in contemporary dispositifs. by Melita Zajc. Communication at Laval Virtual 2010. On line.
< Virtual Makeovers for the Post-Identity Cyborg , by Isabel Chang (1999).
> Shop Mandiberg (2000). Work on identity modeling, by Mandiberg. [Greene].
< The Unexpected. (1928) and The Cinematographic Principle and the Ideogram (1929) . in Film Form, by Sergei Eisenstein. Harcourt Brace, New York 1949. About kabuki, ideograms, etc.
Concept proposed by Pierre Lévy in L'idéographie dynamique.
- Notes in Chroniques de l'Hypermonde, march 1992.
Illustration, an example from an Ivan Viola presentation. In computer graphics, the term is not far from "expressive rendering".
Illustrator. An Adobe product.
Image. See notice.
Imaginary. See virtual.
Immersive environment in the Poitier (France) Futuroscope.
Immediate, immediacy. More in French.
Immersive, immersion. See special notice.
- Implicit creation. Term used by Ulrike Spierling (in [Subsol]), in an acception near to the "metacreation" of [Whitelaw].
- Implicit model. Stylistic Rendering of Implicit Models. (Computational Aesthetics 2005). See the PDF. I have not found (5/2011) other data about this concept.
Importance. See interest.
Explicit/implicit narration, according to Subsol.
- In music, using computer tools as helm, see [Edwards], notably the Voyager tool, of George Lewis.
- Experience of Infinity by Garousi Mehrad. Communication at Vric 2011. Online.
Infographics, infography. Graphic document making using computers. The term was forged by the French corporation Benson (plotters), in 1974.
- See image, Wikipedia (in French, but the term is mainly French, anyway). See also cartography; and perhaps generative grammar.
< Introduction à l'infographie. by James Foley, Andries van Dam, Steven Feiner, J.F. Hugues and R.L. Philips. Vuibert (c. 2001).
< Algorithmes pour l'infographie. by David Rogers. McGraw Hill France 1988.
< Les graphiques de journaux. by Peter Sullivan. Ifra, Paris 1987.
< Images et ordinateur. Introduction à l'infographie interactive. by P. Morvan and M. Lucas. 1976 (publisher?).
Taken as: transforming data and text into images.
This was a classical topic, well before the advent of computers. One knows the sentence of Napoleon: "A good sketch is better than a long speech" (Wikiquote). Among some important works on the subject, we find
- picture vocabularies have been at hand for long; we can quote for instance The English Duden. by H. Klen et al. Harraps 1937, adapted at that time from Duden's Bildwörterbuch. The Duden is still published, anyway (see website). - the works of Otto Neurath; his history is told in The transformer, principle of making isotype charts. by Marie Neurath and Robin Kinross. Hyphen London 2009. French translation: . Le transformateur. Principes de création des diagrammes Isotype. We have a copy of one of his books, Modern man in the Making. by Otto Neurath. Director, International Foundation for Visual : Alfred A. Knopf, New York and London, 1939. See Wikipedia.
- in the French 60's, Jacques Bertin published a heavy book on the subject: Sémiologie graphique. Diagrammes, réseaux, cartographie. Gauthier-Villars/Mouton 1967.
- more recently, on a more humorous way, see Information is beautiful. French translation: Datavision. Mille et une informations essentielles et dérisoires à comprendre en un clin d'oeil.by David Mccandless. Laffont 2009; this book gives a large number of examples, on 221 pages in full color. - Visual Complexity. Mapping Patterns of Information. by Manuel Lima.Princeton Architectural Press 2011. Beautiful images, and an attempt to systematic reflection, categorization, quantification, theorization. And a pleasure for the eyes.
But, we think, the results have been disappointing, and never led to a precise and formal method. Neither for Neurath nor for Bertin was it possible nor desirable to automate the process. As says Marie Neurath (we translate from the French edition): "The intention is clearly not to define a set of rules with which the data could be automatically translated into visual form. That would amount (to paraphrase Otto Neurath), to transform boring array of figures into boring arrays of symbols".
The computer has led to many practical realizations of
such automated translation. You find some of them in the
spreadsheets software. The French Inria institute has
worked on the topic, and many others. The advent of Big
Data makes it even more
< Some works by Wattenberg may (perhaps) be seen as examples.
- Spreadsheet software generally provides functions to express graphically the arrays of figures.
Artificial intelligence: an issue for some, a conviction for others (reductionists or not). Here a drawing in the web news D.VDA.
Instrument. (music). See special note
Intellectual property. See property.
Intelligence. (artificial). AI.
In 2011, we wrote "the word is outmoded, but for games: an AI is practically synonym of NPC, non player character". In 2017, AI is once more on top of news, be it for games championship (Go), threat on employment or the global issue of "singularity".
At large, we could consider that any artistic creation using computer algorithms is somehow a form of AI. Even for the very large public which uses some of them on their smartphones (framing, head and smile recognition, etc.).
Some artists begin to use it about their creative processes. We shall soon
comment and add references.
< Mechanical bodies, computational minds. Artificial intelligence from Automata to Cyborgs. by Stefano Franchi and Guven Guzeldere (eds). MIT Press 2005.
> AI, Artificial Intelligence. See Spielberg.
> 2001, Odyssée de l'espace.See Kubrick.
< Hybrid Artificial Intelligent Systems by Jeng-Shyang Pan, Marios M. Polycarpou, Michał Woźniak, André C. P. L. F. Carvalho, Héctor Quintián. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, subseries: Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence. Volume 8073. Springer 2013.
< Autonomous and Intelligent Systems by Mohamed Kamel, Fakhri Karray, Wail Gueaieb, Alaa Khamist. LNCS (Lecture notes on computer sciences) Volume 6752. Springer, c. 2011
< AI*IA 2011: Artificial Intelligence Around Man and Beyond by Roberto Pirrone, Filippo Sorbello. LNCS (Lecture notes on computer sciences) Volume 6934. Springer, c. 2011.
< Enaction. Toward a New Paradigm for Cognitive Science. by John Stewart, Olivier Gapenne and Ezequiel A Di Paulo.: MIT Press 2010.
< Le défi des robots pensants, by André Varenne. L'Harmattan 2003. AH No 106 .
< Modéliser et concevoir une machine pensante, by Alain Cardon (Edition des automates intelligents, 2003).
< Terminologie de l'intelligence artificielle. by Gabriel Otman. La maison du dictionnaire, 1997.
< L'ordinateur créatif, by Donald Michie et Rory Johnston. Eyrolles 1987 (original anglais1984).
Intention... is it a possible feature for a machine, a robot? Anyway, real or simulated, it is interesting to know it. Eyes are the main expressive means. Here, the works of Tokyo Institute of Technology, in a communication titled Intent Expression Using Eye Robot for Masco Robot System by Yoichi Yamazaki et al.
Intention. More in French.
Interaction, interactive, interactivity, interactor, see special note.
Interdisciplinary, interdisciplinarity. See multimedia.
Interpolation, an example on a series of values.
Interiority. See Spiritual .
- [Murray] p. 49. "the divergence, fissure and variation of the space, movements, temporality and texture of the very same machineries and theories of performativity that sustain the utopic discourse of interiority".
Internet. See Web.
- Internet of things. Wikipedia. MCD dedicated one issue, on the beginning of 2011.
< L'Internet des objets, by Philippe Gautier and Laurent Gonzalez. Editions de l'Afnor 2011. Page web.
- Berys Gaut in A philosophy of cinematic art (Cambridge university press, 2010) writes 5 pages about cinema specific interpretation issues.
Intersection. Formula [Foley].
Intertextual. See transmedia.
Invariance, invariant. [Bres] quotes these terms several times.
Isosurfaces representation, according to XCrysden.
Inversion (invert). [Brinkmann].
IPTV. Wikipedia: Internet
Protocol television (IPTV) is a system through which
television services are delivered using the Internet
protocol suite over a packet-switched network such as the
Internet, instead of being delivered through traditional
terrestrial, satellite signal, and cable television
- An important facet of
Isocahedron. Example en Processing.
Isohelia. Graphical effect, coming from chemical processing of films. Something like posterizing.
Isosegment. A zone in gray levels (or isosegment) is a set of consecutive pixels, in a given direction, with the same gray level [Cocquerez] p.20.
- Isosurface presentation of volumes is a non-photo-realistic technique. See a text by Markus Hadwiger in the IEEE tutorial.
- Filter [Gonzalez].
- A property of the cellular texturing function, or of noise function, or of fractals.
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