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N (group). [Popper 1] p.148.

N5M. The Next Five Minutes. A meeting about tactical Media" , a term which emerged in Amsterdam, 1993.

N plus Un
Stéphane Trois Carrés: N +1 on the making.

N + 1. Serial work by Stéphane Trois Carrés. Example of video recording.

Nabaz'mob, opera for 100 communicating rabbits, by Antoine Schmitt and Jean-Jacques Birgé).


Nabian Nashid.
> Chameleon Lounge (2010). In cooperation with Rodolphe El Khoury. Futuristic furniture, interactive and sensitive.
- Note in 2009: "Currently a first year doctoral design student, her research interest is focused on integration of responsive networked digital media in design of public spaces, and its impact on spatial experience of the participating public. She is interested in exploring the possibility of having architecture without a place and to affirm a complete, independent space beyond the constraints of place or time. "

Nahas: Rodin software

Nagorny Frédéric Animation film maker, since the end of the 80's, in collaboration with Raymond Perrin.
> Le Pantin (1990) The Paris ACM Siggraph page .

Nahas Monique Page Web. University Paris 7.
- With Hervé Huitric, An interview in Nichons-nous dans l'Internet
- With Hervé Huitric (University Paris 8), Rodin software for 3D images production from bicubic B-splines.
> Gastronomica (1983) . Synthesis images film, with Rodin software. Video.
> La famille Camembert (1982). Communication at Ifip Conference1983.

Naimark Michael. Interaction.
> Be Now Here (1995) [Paul]. 2 pages with a picture in [Grau 2003].Interaction 1995-1997.

Nair Arkan. Self-taught designer . Illustrator and  Art Director, specializing in mixed media, illustration, and digital art.

Najle Ciro. Architect, design
> Cummulus (2011-2012). Proper typing by the artist : Cummulus. Cited with picture in Artpress2 Art in the digital age, may-june-july 2013.

Nakamura Motomichi.
> Bcc (2001). Four animations. [Greene], page Netart.

Nakashima H.
< Handbook of Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments. by H. Nakashima, H. Aghjan and J.C. Augusto. Springer 2010.

Nake Frieder. Wikipedia One of the first digital artists exposing in an art gallery (according to Faure Walker)  1965.
- At the Computer Institute of the Stuttgard Polytechnic, he used the Graphomat Zuse Z 64 drawing machine to produce full-color plotter drawings".
< Construction and Intuition: Creativity in Early Computer Art. in McCormack 2012.
- Quoted by [Couchot 2003] p. 40.
- Works in the Victoria & Albert Museum.
> Random walk through raster. (before 1976°; See an image , and reconstituted code in the Recode project.
> Zufalliger Polygonzug (1965) Quoted by [Lieser] with a picture
> 7.4.65 Nr. 1+6 (1965), quoted with picture by [Lieser] 2015.
> Rechteckschraffuren (1965). Quoted by [Lieser] with a picture, and another work of the same period.
- 7 pages with pictures in [Dreher].

Götz Naleppa: Genealogy of sound art. from his Sound composition webpage.


Naleppa Götz. Sound (and other fields) artist , teacher and manager. His biography.
- Since 2008 , freelance producer and sound artist.
- He founded the weekly slot "Klangkunst" (sound art) at Deutschlandradio, and was its responsible editor for 14 years.
- Solo pieces and composition since 2000.
> Robinsonate (1983), his first project, created with the Transit Communication group.

Nameth Ronald. Film maker. A colleague of John Cage. Four pages and photos, in [Youngblood].
- He cooperated also in HPSCHD. See Cage.
> As the World turns (1968-1969). See [Youngblood].
> L's G.A. (Lincoln's Gettysburgh Address) (1968-69) with Salvatore Murano and Michael Holloway.
> Andy Warhol's Exploding Plastic Inevitable (1966). "An eaerie world of semi-slow motion against an aural background of incredible frenzy. He makes kinetic empathy a new kind of poetry".

Nam Hye Yeon. Digital media, interactive installations and performance video.
> Kiss Controller (2011). A video game, where the moves of a ball are controlled by tongue moves during kissing. Web page.
> What color is it ? (2005)

Namm. Annual music meeting.

Conlon Nancarrow

Nancarrow Conlon. Music composer. Cited by [Lehmann]. Wikipedia.
> For Yoko (1992) for mechanical piano
> 51 studies for mechanical piano (1948-1993).

Napier Mark. Network, web. Wikipedia, [Paul] , [Greene] pp. 100-102 notably.
> Spire with shadow (2007 c.) shown in [DAM], Berlin, September 2007. and in [Lieser] with a picture
> Net Flag (2002) quoted by [Lieser] with a picture.
> Feed (2001) A large picture in [Lieser].
> Riot (1999) A large picture in [Lieser].
> Digital Landfill (1998).
> The Shredder (1998) and several works in [Lieser], with pictures.

Joseph Nechvatal : Terra IncognitO.

Nappi Maureen. Page Leonardo.
> WeldedChamber (2003). 3D virtual painting [Wands].
> Continuum (1989). Abstract video created with Dean Winkler . Music by Philip Glass, played by the Kronos String Quartet.

Nash Adam. Scientist and artist. RMIT University, Melboune, Australia.
< Recognition: Combining Human Interaction and a Digital Performing Agent, by John McCormick, Kim Vincs, Saeid Nahavandi, Steph Hutchison and Douglas Creighton (Deakin University, Burwood, Australia) and Adam Nash (RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia). Communication at Laval Virtual 2014.

Nash. Cercle Ramo Nash. See Paul Devautour.

Naud Fred.Art publisher. Interested by digital works materialization.
- ae-editions.
- ArtCode Attack.

Naudy Jean-Baptiste. Co-founder of Société Réaliste group.

Nauta Ralph. A member of Drift Studio.
> Flylight (2013). Presented at Pad Paris. See our blog.

Nawar Haytham. Video and installations.
> Sound + Bread (2018)
> 31/49 (2009). Diverse presentations.

Ndiaye Momar Kaëré. Dance.
> d-CLIC Danse 2 (2012).

N'Diaye Nola. Ecole Nationale des Chartes.
- Décrire l’art numérique, un enjeu pour sa postérité 6 mars 2017.
- See 2017 symposium.

Nechvatal Joseph. Wikipedia. Art site . Blog
< In June 2014, exposition at Galerie Richard (Paris). Works in the same style, complex and delicate, with a quite modest appearance due to a matt printing on canvas.
< Dynamic tensions. A discussion between Taney Roniger and Joseph Nechvatal (1/2013)
- Viral Symphony
< Immersion into noise. Open Humanities Press, an imprint of MPublishing, University of Michigan Library, 2011
> Anus (2011). Relations between the human body and Cosmos.
> Viral Venture (2011). Video of this event (February 2011).
< Towards an immersive intelligence", New York, Edgewise, 2009. This title groups several short essays, which give to think. Let's quote literally "... the immersive art recipient learns of his or her own hyper-embodied, summational possibilities by triggering a rejection of self-stultifying mental habits... > Esthétique et complexité (2011 c.) Accessible online. Peace and serenity on minimalist sound and images.
> Terra incOgnitO" (2009).
> Virus Attack (2009) Video.
> Becoming multiple (2007). Computer aided painting [Forest 2].
> St. Occluded PornoLog (2005) [Forest 2]
> Viral Counter Attack (2004). [Moulon] p. 108 with photo.
> Voluptuary droid decolletage (2002).
> Computer virus project (2002), a collaboration with Stéphane Sikora, programmer. [Forest 2].
> Body in circuits (1991). Shown at Show Off 2013.
> pile (erogenous) 55 sybaritic (1999) Quoted by [Lieser] with a picture
> Closer (1987). Shown at Show Off 2013
- One page in [Berger-Lioret], p. 72. Quoted by [Chirollet].
- [Paul] presents The Birth of the viractual et Voluptuary droid decolletage (the original titles contain voluntary case transgressions). The process works in two phases: handling and deterioration of images, using a viral software, then impression of the works without author's intervention. It is difficult to know if the "robot" is more than a simple printer.


Nees Georg Wikipedia. Nees began programming computers in 1959. Circa 1965, while working at Siemens in Erlangen, Germany, he began writing programs in Algol that used random number generators to generate drawings automatically by controlling a Graphomat Z64, a primitive flat-bed pen plotter designed by Konrad Zuse. In order to create this art, Nees also wrote some of the world's first graphics libraries, packages named G1, G2, and G3. Nees intervened manually in the production of the artwork by determining when the image was complete. Another piece, variously called "Schotter", "Gravel Stones", or "Cubic Disarray" and created by Nees between 1968 and 1971, depicts a transition from order to chaos: a regular grid of evenly-spaced squares at the top of the image is randomly turned and displaced until, at the bottom of the image, the grid is completely disrupted Nees's artwork "Sculpture" (1968) was one of the world's first computer-generated sculptures; it was exhibited at the 1969 Venice Biennale. - Works in the Victoria & Albert Museum.
- Untitlled. (before 1976). See images of this and other works, with reconstituted code in the Recode project
> No Title (1971) quoted with picture by [Lieser] 2015.
> k27 gevwebe (1965-68), Quoted by [Lieser] with a picture
> K38 Schwarm (1965-68) Quoted by [Lieser] with a picture
> k15 Irrwege (1965-68). Quoted by [Lieser] with a picture
- Quoted by [Couchot 2003] p. 40.
- 3 pages with pictures in [Dreher].

Negroponte Nicholas
- Urban5. Tool for architects. Cited with pictures in [Dreher].

Neidlich Warren. Painting, photography.
> Conversation map (2002) Various techniques .[Paul].  

Neill Ben. Instrument creator (Mutatrumpet) and VJ.
> Mutatrumpet (1980).

Neitsch Sebastian. Robotics. A member of Fishing for Compliments.
> Impasse (2007)

Nelson Gary. Music. Cited by [Baudouin].
> Function Complex N°6 (1973).

Nelson Jason. An interview with Museum Two.
> Dispersed Writings (2010). Performed during the Chercher le texte festival (2013).

Nelson Jennifer Yu. Director.
> Kung Fu Panda 2 (2011). Wikipedia. Dreamworks company.

Nelson Max. Interaction.
> Carla's Island (1983). Quoted by [Couchot 2003].

Nelson Ted (Théodore H.). Invented hypertext and . Dedicated page.
> Literary machines (1981). Reprinted with comments in [Wardrip-Fruin 2003] (19 pages)
> Computer Lib/Dream Machines (1974) Reprinted with comments in [Wardrip-Fruin 2003]. (38 pages in small fonts, + drawings).
> Xanadu (1967) Video .
< Computer Lib. Dream Machines. Tempus Books of Microsoft Press. 1974, 1975, 1987. Revised edition 1987.
< Interactive Systems and the Design of Virtuality. Creative Computing, volume 6, numbers 11 et 12, 1980.
> Labyrinth: An Interactive Catalogue (1970), by Ted Nelson and Ned Woodman. Picture in [Bianchini-Verhagen].
< A File Structure for the Complex, the Changing and the Interminate. 1965. Reprinted with comments in [Wardrip-Fruin 2003].



Nemirovsky Paul. MIT
> Emonic, interactive environment.

Nemo Biennal. Paris 2020.

Nemo : Investigation (1988).

Nemo. A group of designers founded by Alain Domingo and François Scali;
Not digital in general, but some of his works use a clock, one of the bases of nearly any digital system. Investigation (below) is a forrerunner of generative art.
> Investigation (1988). "A music box/alarm clock produces random music modulated by the parameters determined by the time the alarm clock is set for, soft or violent according to the supposed state of sleep indicated by those parameters.
- Nemo, Alain Domingo and François Scali. Introducdtion by Didier Laroque. GG Editions, Barcelona 1992.

Nemo (Le Monde de) . On top of the animation films broadcasted on TV (27 Aug. 2008, on TF1).
> Nemo chez le dentiste (2008 c.) Extract.

Nenow Damian. Animation film maker.
> Paths of hate (2011). Special mention award at Annecy 2011.

Nervous System. Founded in 2007 by Jessica Rosenkrantz and Jesse Louis-Rosenberg, "Nervous System is a design studio that works at the intersection of science, art, and technology. We create using a novel process that employs computer simulation to generate designs and digital fabrication to realize products. Drawing inspiration from natural phenomena, we write computer programs mimicking processes...".

Neshat Shirin. Wikipedia.
> Logic of the birds (2001). Cited with picture in [Goldberg 2011].

Nessim Barbara Wikipedia. Artist, illustrator, and teacher.

Nestel Charlie. Page web.

NET. National Educational Television Network.
- opens KQED (experience center).
- opens the PBL (Public Broadcasting Library), in 1968, with, on the program, Allan Kaprow, Nam June Paik and Otto Piene. Later Stan Vanderbeek. See [Youngblood] pp. 281 sq.

Netherlands. See our "geographical guide".

Netzhammer Yves
> Installation with proportions (2008) and several works presented by [Lieser] with large pictures

Neumann Lazlo. Professor at University of Girona (Spain). A founder of Computational Aesthetics symposium.

Neumark Norie.
> Shock in the Ear (1998) [Murray] p. 205-209 comments this CD-Rom. A website and magazine, both on web and print form. Critical digital culture and media arts. Since 1993

Neural Semantics. A generative artist, with his Xan software and several projects.
> Xan0904 (2003 c.). Abstract painting.
> Microchips Circus (2003 c.). A software for abstract painting.

Neusterrer Marcus. An article with images in [Dermineur].
< The Potential and Limitations of Web Art - A South African Perspecdtive (Master's dissertation). See comments in [Dermineur] and an article by Carly Whitaker.
> Entracte (2010), by Stephen Hobbs and Marcus Neustetter.
> Relation V (2010). Painting.

Newcombe Marte.
> Soothsayers (2006 c.). Forms evoking robots Siggraph 2006.
- Mathematical objects and concepts with Greg Shirah.

Martin Newell: Teapot

Newell Martin. Sculpture (digital). Wikipedia.
> Utah Teepot (1975). An emblematic icon of 3D digital creation.

Newman Rupert. Video mapping. Instagram.
- 4 pages with pictures in [Dreher] (PDF online).
> Metamorphosis (2017). A giant interactive cube. A blog by Dominique Moulon.

New3S. The press release announces new content packagers.
- Hervé Heully, president and founder of New3S.

Newtek. Software provider.
> Lightware3D (2010 c.). Modelling software.
- Video of part of a tutorial software.

Newton-Rex Ed. Music. "I founded Jukedeck, an artificial intelligence startup. We’re a 20-person team working on AI music composition. I write and speak about artificial intelligence and the impact it will have on creativity. I compose music, mostly for choir. My compositions are published by Boosey & Hawkes."

Niark1. Free lance graphic artist.

Nicolai Carsten . Sounds. Multimedia. Quoted by [Quaranta] p. 22, and by [Schalhorn] pp. 56-59
> Particle noise (2013)
> Polylit (2006) Interactive installatin, A large picture in [Lieser].
> Micro macro (1996). Installation.

Nideffer Robert. Cerebral games.
> Proxy (2001). [Paul].
> Bodies@INCorporated (1995). Collaboration between Robert Nideffer (interfaces designer), Ken Fields (sound artist) and Jason Schleifer (programming). Sponsored by Viewpoint Data Labs. Performance. [Paul], [Greene] p. 108.
> You Will Big Brother remix (1993). Extract.
- [Popper 2] p. 141-147 shows an image of this software in use.

Niebelungen. The "treasure", virtual reality show (by Olivier Auber), presented in Paris AH No 14 (manifestations).

Nicephore Labs. R&D site in Chalon-sur-Saône SH No 36 (actu).

Nickl Niki. Bio-art. Cited by [Reichle 2009]
> Genetix (1993)

Niel Gregory. Moves. Forms the group DN wih Laetitia Delafontaine.

Nielsen Frank.
< Computational Information Geometry for Image and Signal Processing, Springer 2017.
< Geometric Sciences of Information (GSI), Springer, Paris 2017
< Topological and Geometrical Structures of Information (TGSI), Springer 2017
< Differential Geometry on Computer Vision and Machine Learning, Springer 2017

Niemetzky G.
< Gestion de la couleur. Calibration et profils ICC pour l'image numérique et la chaîne graphique. by G. Niemetzsky. Eyrolles 2002.

Nijs Marnix de.
> Run, motherfucker, run (2004) Installation with the spectator on a rolling carpet. [Moulon] p.14-15 with a photo.

Nikolais Aldwin. Choreographer. Philippe Decouflé is one of his disciples.

Nikolic Tornislav
> Image (2015C) . Video

Nishimura Masashi. Black and white algorithmic works.
> Thorn, Evolution (2006 c.) Siggraph 2006.

Niss Millie. 2009 +. Page Rhizome.
> Self-help (2002). [Greene]. Web work about commercials.

Nissan. Automobile manufacturer.
- With Juke, urban crossover with an aggressive look, Nissan launches an application of light painting in augmented reality (Technikart 6/2011).

Niwa Fujio. A member of Computer Technique Group.

Njenga Muchiri. Transmedia artist and film maker. Traditional aesthetics, digital techniques. One with images in [Dermineur].
> Kichwateli (2012)

Marino N. Gallery, see N.Marino

N+N Corsino. See Corsino.


Yannick Noah, a picture in Le Mensuel de Rennes

Noah Yannick. A full article about his tour in Sonomag, July 2007. The sound engineer; Hamid Malki, explains the difficulties born from the singer's voice, then the necessity of "a double banana, of which one in dV for Yannick alone".


Nod-a. Collective innovation devices.

Nodal. Generative music software.

Nodebox. Generative graphic software.

Noel Sebastian. Product designer and engineer. A member of Troika Group.

Noetlinger Jérôme. Electro-acoustic music then multimedia. Wikipedia (in French)
< Supercolor Palunar (2009) Video Feedback experience,bvy Jérôme Noetinger & Lionel Palun

Nogami and his smartphone mask

Nogami Katsuki.
> Rekion byInstallation. Nogami uses various technologies to make humor or alert about the contemporary world. For instance just a smartphone used as a mask in front of his face.

Nogo. Nogovoyages agency.
- Partners : Stéphane Degoutin, Gwenola Wagon, Alex Knapp.
. From Forest to Nogoland : take part! (2013)
> Cyborgs dans la brume (2011) Video installation . See Synesthésie .

Nogues Cécile.
> Tragédie informationnelle. (2013 c.). with Christophe Bruno. Shown at Show Off. Ceramic aliens says Dominique Moulon.

Noll Michael. A digital art pioneer. See Cannerberg webpage. Quoted by [Couchot 2003], who quotes several works. Cited by [Baudouin].
> Hommage à Mondrian (1964). See Nick Lambert.
> Animation (1965) still picture, Quoted by [Lieser] with a picture
> Gaussian Quadratic (1962).
- Works in the Victoria & Albert Museum.
> Hypercube 1965. 3 pages with pictures in [Dreher].

Nono Luigi. Serialist composer. Quoted by [Edwards]. Wikipedia.

Nonotak Studio. Collaboration between the illustrator Noemi Schipfer and the architect musician Takami Nakamoto.
> Mural in a public housing (2011)

Nord - Pas-de-Calais. See our geographical guide.

Nordin Jesper
> Visual Exformation (2016C) by Jesper Nordin (composer) with Cyril Teste (stage director), Ramy Fischler (designer) and Tor Nørretranders (scientific writer). Music with lights.

Normandy. See our geographical guide.

Nouveau Fred

. A fouding member of Wild Shores.

Nouvelles de Danse. Publications about dance, published by Contredanse, Brussels.
< Interagir avec les technologies numériques. Nouvelles de Danse. Brussels, Contredanse, 2004.

> Nova (2005 c.) Tridimensional light work, by ETH Zurich, notably Simon Schubiger-Banz and Martina Eberle. See their text in [Adams].

Nova Nicolas. Scientist and interaction design consultant.

Novak Ben. Music evaluation algorithm.
- A long story (13 pages) about him in [Steiner, 2012]

Novak Marcos. Virtual architecture.
[Popper 2] 379 .

Nove Tendencije. Movement with its center in Zagreb. 1961-1973. Lumino-kinetic art. Coordinated several groups : Grav, Equipo 57, Gruppo N, Gruppo T, MID, Gruppo 63, Operativo R et Amzimuth, Collectif Zero, Anonima Group, Dvizenije.
- Quoted by Darko Fritz in [Lartigaud], who comments "The movement was really international, in spite of the Cold War blocks. He hosted artists from South America, and late from Asia." (our translation). There are few data about this group. See for instance Bit International.

Novello Chris. Creator of a "patchbay insrument that connects computer programs using physical jacks and cables".
> Do Videogames Dream of Electric Sheep? (2013). Performance during the Chercher le texte festival (2013).

Nox/Lars Spuybroek. Architects studio.
> WaterPavilion (1993) on HtwoOexpo in NeetleJans (photos in [Picon]).
> Son-O-House (2000) Visit. Realization from 2000 to 2004.

NT2. Laboratoire Nouvelles technologies, Nouvelles textualités of Uqam (Université du Québec à Montréal).

Numediart. The numediart Institute for Creative Technolgies was founded in 2007 by the Unive­sity of Mons. It organizes scientific training and research activities in the area of cultural and creative industries. The topics covered are: audio, image, video, gesture, and bio-signal processing,
> City Light (2014) Website collecting film captations of contemporary spectacles.

Catherine Nyeki. Life and humor.

Numeris Causa. Virtual gallery, by Stéphane Maguet.

Nunes Emmanuel.
> Lichtung III (2007). A heir of Stockhausen, Nunes gives, with this work, a summa about sound spatialization writing (Ircam document).

Nuñez Leo. Multimedia
> Dispersiones (2017). See our post about Siggraph 2017.

Nvidia. Graphic cards.
- Demo of DirectX 10 on GeForce 8.

Nxedlana Jamal. A member of Cuss group.

Nyce James M.
< From Memex to Hypertext: Vannevar Bush and the Mind's Machine. James M. Nyce, Paul Kahn (dirs). Academic Press, Boston, 1991.

Nyeki presenting Mimetika at Show Off 2013.

Nyeki Catherine.. Installations and video. She is mainly inspired by biological themes, to present videos and sometimes animated sculpture including videos. Not deeply digital. The videos are frequently telling a sort of true narration, and the public keeps looking, when properly installed, for instance in Gaîté lyrique, using several of the special cabins provided par the Resource Center of la Gaïté. > Mimetika (2010). Nyeki comments (at Show Off 2013, our translation): "I am both ,a plastic artist and a musician. My thematics relates to life pasticity, working at language level (with several languages) as well as sound. The population of Mimetikc is buit upon a gestural mimetic alphabet. Hence I capture the real and make assemblies. I consider my approach as anti-algorihmic, even if it is not politically correct. I have practiced algorithmics a lot, but I want to take control over the programs and not the > Plastika (2010). Not very digital, but humor. Presented at the end of 2010 at Cité des Sciences of Paris La Villette.








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