Works of Pierre Berger
1. Recent articles and lectures
Des systèmes aux écosystèmes. Aspects informatiques.
Conférence pour le ceGSI (Club européen pour la gouvernance des systèmes d'information) 29/12/2021
Concevoir les écosystèmes pour le monde qui vient
Conférence à l'Adeli sur les écosystèmes. 15/6/2021
écologiquement responsables ? . Presented at Instituf Fredrik
R. Bull, March 2020.
pratique de la peinture au fil des ans .Last revised 26/2/2020.
De l'autonomie à la
coopération Théorie et expérimentation artistique avec
Roxame Communication at Institut Frédéric Bull Nov. 2019.
Chance to Complicity in Art. Theory and practical
experimentation with the Roxame software. Apostasis workshop,
Paris, Apr. 2019
modélisation d'un(e)artiste. Communication at Afscet, december
la recherche d'une vie . L'éveil d'une inconscience
artistique. par son auteur, Pierre Berger. Postface by Patrice
Huguenin.114 pages. Copymedia Oct. 2018.
numérique dans l'art . Lecture at Cnam Paris 21/2/2018.
Introduction générale. Vidéo.
Les différentes formes d'art :
l'ordinateur ne pourra ... (2017)
2. Indexes and tables
Articles about information systems theory, technologies and
their users (mainly corporations, between 1990 and 2000) .Beware :
these files are ancient, and have been ported from environments
like Framework to Word and generally, finally, to HTML. Then the
code is frequently polluted. Beyond that, they are the rough files
I was sending to the final editing team, then
- they may
include typographical marks,
- they may have been edited
after my remittal,
- they may have been published in issues
different from the original intended ones.
by business sectors (and publishing dates)
articles on information systems.
my written works until 1991 (in French, much more complete that
the below selection).
ISF. Index of some articles
published in Ingénieurs et scientifiques de France, from 1885 to
Cnof. Partial indexing of
the Bulletin du comité national de l'organisation française,
from 1927 to 1932. We have made this work at the Cnof offices, then
in Puteaux (Haut-de-Seine), a little before its disparition. This
bullein, stenciled, is probably nowhere available now.
Conferencia. Index of this review, from
1930 to its end after WW2. Little about digital creation, but it
may be useful to get the cultural context of this period. And this
review contains the lecture of Paul Valéry : Notre
destin et les lettres (2/1937).
Informatique et Gestion Tables of this
monthly magazine, from november 1970 to spring 1980.
- Diccan , the present dictionary of
- The Roxame
dictionary, specifically written to be used directly by the Roxame
software, but still being lisible by humans, like a sort of code.
The HTML version (here used) is automatically generated. See the
(work in progress).
- The dictionary of Stic
(Sciences et technologies de l'information), updated until
2005, covering the computer and information sciences technologies
terms and persons from the origins to 2005.
de l'Hypermonde (1997-1999)
- Télédico, in 1984 and
1985, on minitel. No longer available.
ancient books we
4. Papers and communications (published or not)
- Deep Identity.
Interim report on Roxame.2 and the evolution of digital art
- My liflelong fight for a
democratic digital worlds. (in French)
- An history of my personal
information systems. (PIS).
- A state of the Digital
Arts on the beginning of 2014.
art, from the Bit to the Cloud
Aesthetics and Algorithms, Around the
Feel the bit beating... . Poem. 2013.
From Goggles to Transmedia
- A la découverte de l'art génératif, enfant du numérique.
10 pages in We Demain , n°4, spring-summer 2013. Not available on
- La contribution de l'art à la prospective. Presentation for
Prospective 2100 Group. The
full video recording.
Complexity and beauty,
the uncanny peak. January 2013. A better version has
become a communication at Laval Virtual 2013, and will in the
future be accesslble online.
Immersion, from goggles to transmedia. January
2013. A communication at Laval Virtual 2013, not yet accessible
Transmedia . Fall 2012. (a
génératif. Jouer à Dieu... un droit ? un devoir ?
by Pierre Berger and Alain Lioret. L'Harmattan 2012.
Le mystérieux chapeau
pointu de l'art génératif .This text has been
modified, see above "Complexity and beauty, the uncanny peak".
matters in digital art ? The (digital) soul !.
Communication at Laval Virtual 2011 Conference
(2010). Written on a suggestion by Alain Lioret.
: Digitally augmented identity.(communication à Laval
Virtual, 2010). Art, identity, digitalization.
autonomie. Programmer l’imprévisible.
Communications at Afig workshop, Arles 2009. With considerations
about algorithmic aesthetics.
(communication at ICSSEA conference, 2009 : Networked Massively
multi-players games as a development environment.
2028 ? A prospective
text, by Joël and Pierre Berger, written for 'Ordre des Experts
manuel (informative, without operational guaranty) 2008.
Siggraph 2008 : Bravo
, (Bravo la France. Chapeau l'Amérique. Allez, l'Europe ! ),
(about robots), Sexe
(Salvation will come from the women).
Pour un véritable
aménagement linguistique. (2006-2007). Notes about a politics
Siggraph 2006. Notes and mixed feelings about Art show
in Siggraph 2006 (Boston).
Le numérique en peinture :
un horizon nouveau pour un art traditionnel. 2005.
Mostly a presentation of Roxame in a symposium Traitement Signal
Image et arts (Processing, signal, image and arts).
(2000-2005). No longer hoping to emerge as a philosopher, I center
myself on a a computer and "painting" version of Max. I
call it Xam, considering it as a younger daugther of Max (My real
daugher wont like that). But surfing on Internet shows that this
name is quite frequently used. Then I createa new word, "Roxame",
a robot with a soul (âme, in French, echoing to the digital soul,
an expression crossing my 1999 book). Roxame may be considered as a
Turing test for an Art version of artificial intelligence. From the
theoretical standpoint, I think that it is a success. But, to
succeed on Art marked, I should have focussed on markeing. I did'nt
mind, and concentrated myself on my digital universe. In this
environment, I write the rather substantial Peinture
et machine, which will be developped in diccan and in L'art
génératif (see above).
Peinture et machine
(2004) is the theoretical environment of my project Roxame. Since,
- after so many years, my ideas failed to have any serious
impact, even in the scientific community,
- I felt unable to
develop in earnest my theoretical intuitions (digital relativity in
particular), for lack of mathematical competence,
I decided to
explore another way, giving a sister to Max.
is limited. But a least I took a lot of pleasure in the programming
and discovery of unexpected works, beautiful enough to be accepted
in several Art salons.
Pour un humanisme constructiviste.
2002. follows again the tracks of Le post-humanisme. And turned dry
for the same reasons.
An Ontology of the
Digital ( 2001-2010. Formerly called A digital
Universe). A vast construction site, where trenches are still
widely open, and some hepas of waste.
Questions au Père
Noël (2001-2005). Some looks on present and perspectives
of computers and information systems, presented as interviews of
Santa Claus (each end of year).
7 laws of ITST Theses about IT
science and technology (2001)
logiciel. (Communication at Club de l'hypermonde, mars
2000, révision en 2010). It is a work of History, showing that
software was not borne one day from nothing, but was the result of
a long technical evolution, with deep roots in punched cards
Musée numérique et ville
numérique : racines, parcours, interaction. in La
ville numérique, edited by Victor Sandoval.. Les Cahiers du
Numérique, Hermès Science Europe 2000. Rather weak, excessively
1990-2010. Un siècle de
systèmes d'information. (Communication at Institut
L'informatique libère l'humain. La
relativité digitale (1999). Published by L'Harmattan. With
a preface by Thierry Gaudin. But with poor success (200 issues sold
in 8 years), and no review by anybody, in spite of a communication
effort with my fellow journalists. Even Le Monde Informatique, my
own journal, dit not put a line about it.
Le post-humanisme (1999) is a
line of thought which could, did I think, extend logically the
reflexions of the Club de l'Hypermonde. But I had to stop, because
these lines of theories appeared as too anti-humanist, and in fact
rather nazist. Though things have evolved since that time, we are
still faced with this kind of issues, and manking is wrong to
refuse an objective look to them.
LHD, une loi de croissance digitale.
(probably 1999). A communication to the Groupe Histoire of Club de
l'Hypermonde. I finalize my reflections about Moore's law and its
generalisation. Later, in a meeting of a Mounier-Kuhn workshop,
probably in 2009, I'll learn that this law is, at least partly, a
deliberate choice by the SIA
(Semiconductor Industry Association).
1998) Communication to CNFPT (Centra national de formation des
personnels territoriaux, if I remind well), I prepare this
synthetic paper, oriented to forecastig. In fact, my presentation
does not fit well in the organizers intention. They would habe
liked, in the mool of this time, that I predict the end of computer
discipline by nework discipline. Which could have some consequences
for a lot of people, mostly the CIOs. Instead, I show the central
role of computers, even in a networked world. But I could do my
presentation, and some people will say me "At least, you have
pushed us to think"
La démocratie américaine (1998)
is a rather lateral topic, where I collected my thoughs, in view of
a workhop organized by the reflexion group Gesys.
Je crois à l'hypermonde
(1997). A reflexion about markets and evolutions. Will lead to the
foundation of Club de l'Hypermonde.
1997). Smart home. This topic comes back regularly in the news,
with terms like "smart buildings", or "the home of
tomorrow", sometimes related to telecommuting. Actually, homes
does not change much. Probably because humans do not ask for it.
J'ai bâti mon Personet
(1996). In 1996, seeing the advantages of the web browsers, and
their aptitude to be used on personel machines, I begin the
integration of all my personal and professional date into a
Le fou prend la tour.
This paper, about the merging of Axa and UAP, two French insurance
companies, is a summit ot my journalistic competence about the
users. I am able, without any information given at that time by the
companies, to summarize a long history and explain (partly) the
merger by the difference in computer strategies and profile of
their CIOs. But in fact noboby celebrated this exploit, and both
CIO's were furious about this paper.
The Memorial (1996) was a
project that I hoped to realize, with the Club de l'Hypermonde, and
possibly with the help of my friends Micheline and Roland Deboux.
But it had too few hopes of success, at least at that time, and
even Mrs Hildesheimer, of the French Archives Nationales, did not
found a way to push it towards realization.
Seven stones from Kyoto
(circa.1995). During a press travel in Japan, I call a
visit to this famed temple and its garden. Hence the inspiration of
this short text, which is a rather good resume of my thoughts, even
today in 2012. The short original text is followed by later comment
1995).Though not properly a writing, I gathered at that time a lot
of texts published between the two World wars. I wondered if the
90's could be compared to the 30's... with the same terrific
prospects. My survey The 1930's : foreshadowing or
antithesis of the 90's concluded that the periods were
really different, and that if feart there was to feel, it was not
for the same reasons. This work emphasised also for me the richness
of intellectual, scientific and technical development of this
period. I had, at that time, some fascinating books, first of all
(from my standpoint in these years), the book of René Carmille.
And led to a certainty : WW2 was not as beneficial for science
as has been so generally said. Sure, it fostered research around
the nuclear weapons, and about calculus. But it blocked also a lot
of work that was in progress, and would have its social and
economic benefits some 10 if not 20 years earlier !
Le sexe... ant its
relations with technolgy. Diverses nots, around 1994, mainly for
the Club de l'hypermonde.
Informatique et sciences humaines Hand notes, around 1995.
Le texte au coeur de
la nébuleuse informatique. Le Monde informatique, 1994. A
synthetic short paper, in a forecasting perspective, not too much
contradicted by the ulterior facts, seen in 2012.
by Patrick Curran (Paris 8), about Virtual Reality and Hypermonde.
Reflexion, wih Jean-Marie Letourneux, about growing inequalities;
Some views for the working group Afcet Bureautique. Unpublished.
See a state of the art in 1989 below.
An interview (1990). Short.
vers 1990). Downsizing, in that time, was pointing onto replacement
of "mainframes" (large, proprietary systems) by more
distributed machines, Unix based. I had to fight against the main
manufacturers (IBM mainly) to show the validity of the concept.
Which finally won, although some aspects remain disputable.
THL (notes in some 1989
issues a Valeurs 2010, a newsletter I was distributing in
my family). The THL (Transparadigmatic Hyper Laboraory) was a
"cave". More exactly the dream of a cave. It was in my
house basement, with as only projector a microfilm reader.
et couleur partout (1989). Short paper.
groupware émerge des laboratoire". State of the art in
january 1989. Le Monde Informaique du 16 janvier. .
Maintenant l'hypermonde (1990)
is an effort to globalize the consequences of virtual reality. In
fact, this expression was central in the first version of the book.
But I did not like the intrinsic contradiction between real and
virtual, and looked for something more positive and constructive. I
hit on "hyperworld", both as positive and as a
generalisation of expressions à la mode there : hypergraph,
hypertext... In spite of preface by Thierry Gaudin, the book was
rejected by several publishers. I admit that it has some structural
defects, but they could me adjusted. Unfortunately, publishers in
general are not litterary agents ...
I liked the word, and that pushed me to launch a reflexion
group, the Club de l'Hypermonde, which creed was eplicited by its
Manifesto in 1991. was really active during ten
years, and still exists nominally in 2007. In this frame, we
prepared a Manifesto and some writings such as A political
system for Hyperworld (1993).
L'aube de la domotique
(Le Monde Informatique, april 1986). We write "La
domotique sera un art autant et plus qu'une technique" (The
smart home will be an art more than a technology). 27 years later,
this integration did not happpened has some were foretelling. The
different "poles" (TV, phone, energy managemnet) remain
mainly separated one from each other. And there are no central
control point. And the wiring problems, major at that thime, have
been solved by ADSL and wireless networking.
Télédico. The presentation document of the
portal we launched in 1984 about Informatics, using the French
Minitel network. It included a dictionary, a sort of blog, and
commercials. That was at least 15 years too early and we had to
dissolve Télémapresse, the corporation we had built with a
Computer service corporation and a printer.
Jouer en vraie
grandeur. Et allons-y pour la kermesse.Description and
Basic source code fro tree grames, controlled throug a Vic Rel cart
by a Commodore 64. In 2012, the buzzword is "physical
computin",typically the kind of applications you can develop
with a Arduino cart or something alike.
Orgware, or variable geometry
organization (1980) was accepted as an internation
converende in Vienne. It was also my first subtantial text in
English. The idea was to propose a solid frame for bureautic
concepts and organizational views. Complementary
Un concept limite, l'information
parfaite (1979) was a bolder attempt to theoretical
thinking. It compared information to perfect gasses, and tried to
formulate the basic associate law. Nobody found the concept
interesting, and my proposal of lecture was refused by an Afcet
congress. I must say that, at that time, I had no idea of the kind
of style and presentation required for these kind or performances.
Max, le robot égoïste (1978-79).
A first technical attempt to realize the L concept.
For its 100th isssue, the Informatique et Gestion computer magazine
does a "rétroprospective". Reading me again in 2012, I'm
not so proud, but for some funny elements.
summarizes the concepts of the French standpoint about "office
automation". I was an active participant in this reflexion,
being considered as one of the three creators of the word, of which
the first is certainly Louis Naugès. I played a role on the word
diffusion, publishing a substantial "dossier" in
Informatique et Gestion.
Bientôt 7 millions de chômeurs
(1977) is an editorial for Informatique et Gestion about employment
and the concerns brought out forth by automation. In 1971,
unemployment in France was something around 350 000. t was rather
prophetical, since the unemployment figures rose sharply in the
following years. But, as employment and not leasure were aimed by
all politicians and public opinion, unemployment never rose much
above 3 millions in France. But, in 2014, some reports foresee an
increase of another 3 millions in the years to come. Since
probably, these last figures are more restrictive than in the
1970's, one could say that my prediction was true... if "bientôt"
is read as half a century.
Les réseaux à l'heure des
passions (1977).State of the art on current debates on
Recherche de la
représentation optimale (1975). How to build
languages and interfaces with machines.
Le composant, rencontre de deux
rationalités (notes, circa 1974). Reflections about a
concept borne for physiical products, then extended to software and
services (web services).
(1973) goes along the same line. At that time, notably under the
influence of Jean-Louis Le Moigne, and framed by Afcet (Association
française de cybernétique économique et technique), a
professional and scientific society, a lot of reflexion emerges,
wih notable conferences and books. I tried here to elaborate my own
synthesis. But nobody, and in particular Le Moigne, take it for
serious. Personally, I still think that it was rather original and
serious. More than a lot of the texts published at that time, in
particular because they stress the importance of complexity, and of
a methodical if not mathematical dealing with these questions. But,
due to people like Edgar Morin and Le Moigne himself (though a
scientist), the "systémique" and the reflexions about
complexity went away from mathematical expressions and lost
themselves in psychological and sociological discourse.
Quelques textes, éditoriaux dans Informatique et Gestion. Les
nouveaux anciens combattants. Jargon n'est pas langage. Que vous
Recherche en informatique de
Gestion (1973) is a report on a workshop, which lasted
a lot of time, pushed to the creation of Inforsid (to day, still a
scientific society on the Information systems). This wokshop was
followed by another one in Grenoble, which brought some funding for
collaborative research in three groups : techniques, methods and
social aspects. Unfortunately, the third meeting, in Caen, ( Le
miracle n'a pas eu lieu )emphasised the fact that only the
technical aspects had been seriously worked on. And, logically, the
public effort concentrated on the technical aspect of methods,
leading later to the French methods school, converging in Merise.
Les fonctions de la presse
spécialisée . (Informaique et Gesion, nov. 73), a
communication at Convenion Informatique. A summary of the computer
press role, situated in the profession. With statitics about new
(Unpublished, 1972, circa).Entre le quantum transactionel et
le système total, la convergence informatique (1972)
collects diverse reflexions. At that time, I am editor-in-chief of
Informatique et Gestion, a monthly magazine playing both and
industrial and professional role, including pages of actuality, and
relexions by researchers. Not, for sure, in a properly academic
form, but written by authentic researchers of universities or
research institutes like Inria. That encourage me to push my own
ideas. An in some way, I used them to manage the editorial flow of
the magazine, but could not publish them directly.
In this text, several concepts, major for my personel
development, are yet sketched, in particular :
importance of complexity
- my formula for Liberty.
that time, also, I professed that computer is not done for the
service of man, but on the contrary : as Adam in the garden of
Eden, man is the gardener which must till the garden, and develop
it for higher aims.
Démocratie en temps réel
(Le monde, 3 juillet 1971). Seven years before the French law
"Informatique et Libertés".
Une_ame qui bouge
(Unpublished novel, 1969 ). Basic idea : in the future, "normal"
people do not travel. To move is to be in Police, or in protest.
This is my first (and unique) attempt to science-fiction. Nobody
liked it, then I did not try twice. Perhaps should I have been more
perseverant. I join to the text some drawings, which do not exactly
match with the text, but show my thougt line at that time. The main
idea is that information systems have lead to a workd where normal
people do not travel, and live, with sports and corporal exercise,
in rather secluded worlds. Notably for ecology reasons. It inspired
my later texts and realisations of Valeurs 2010 and the THL
(Transparadigmatic Hyper Laboratory).
Nos libertés face à
l'informatique, dictature ou démocratie nouvelle .
(0.1. Informatique, 1967). A paper strongly in advance on this time
state of minds. Some naive view, or unconfirmed hopes. But a not so
bad anticipation of the French law of 1978).
(L'Argus des Assurances, 1966). These papers were important for my
futures orientations. They were published by the main weekly
journal of the French Insurance profession, l'Argus des Assurances.
The second article shows my early trend to futurology, which was
not considered as very serious by my relations. My brother Marcel,
a high level mathematician, said "Youd should rather study
things to earn the bread for your family, instead of playing wih
these computers". (He admitted, several years later, that he
has been wrong on these points. And he sometimes helped my search,
for example by lending me the Pléiades lecture bool "Logique
et connaissance scientifique", and later "Stabilité
structurelle et morphogenèse", of René Thom.
My father said to me "Ce n'est pas mal. C'est mieux que
tout ce que tu as fait jusqu'à maintenant. Tu ferais un bon
journaliste". That was not at all my idea of a vocation at
that time. But my father insisted, and that lead finally to my
entry into the Press world, where I spent my profession career,
from 1967 to 1999, when I retired.
(1964). The first of my published article. And yet oriented towards
the future. A rather short editorial paper in a professional
journal (I was at that time working in the Reinsurance department
of an Insurance Company). I write that to push my company towards
computers, and not to keep on with its punched card machines. My
boss says "On the future, you can write anything. Half of it
will come true".
Nobody has ever contradicted the ideas
in this paper. Reading it in 1984, I must admit that the real
situation is rather different of what I had dreamed. But not for
tehnological reasons : eventually, reinsurance went to more global
contracts and financial cooperation than finely tuned operations.
Le réseau général
(notes, around 1963). Collection of personal notes. Neatly
forecasting oriented. With ulterior remaks on 1866 and 2021).
dialectique. Philosophy Around 1961, mainly during the
Le problème du mal
(1958) is a dissertation written, at the Saint-Sulpice seminary,
within the Theodicea ("natural theology") course of Mr.
Grison. It is short, but rather bold, since it gives expression of
my early scepticism, just slightly veiled by some precautionary
comments. The for causes scheme, taken from the Scholastics after
Aristotes, has been useful in my future reflexions. In particlar,
for my global project A Digital Universe, it may help to frame
clearly the various topics.
It is my first original and
serious philosophical world. My precedent dissertations, for
example "Le beau dans la nature et dans l'art", showed
mainly le low level of my philosophical culture at that time, which
did not prevented me from pretentions to originality. As one says
in French "Aux innocents les mains pleines".
Les polars (1953 or 54) is my
first non family or school writing. A humoristic pamphlet about
excessive school workers.
Cher Bon papa... My first typed text. "Without
help", notes my Grandma.
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